Published: February 21, 2023


The quorum is a decision making mechanism that any formal group or board can use to help ensure decisions made at their meetings are fair and democratic manner.

It helps to maintain democratic process and means that a small number of members cannot make rouge decisions that are not in the best interests of the organisations. Without the quorum mechanism, some boards would not be able to effectively make decisions.

A quorum is the minimum number of members required to be present at a meeting in order to make the proceedings of the meeting valid. What constitutes a quorum in your organisation will be determined by the organisation’s governing documents, such as its constitution, bylaws, or other rules and regulations. In some organisations a quorum may be majority or supermajority of board members.

A quorum may be defined as a percentage of the total board membership, such as two-thirds or three-quarters, or as a fixed number of members. If the board size is expected to change or you often have issues with recruiting board directors and thus have empty board seats then defining a quorum as a percentage of members can be a better option than a fixed number.

By requiring a minimum number of directors to be present for a meeting to be valid, the board is able to ensure that decisions are not made by a small group of directors who might put their own interests ahead of the interests of the organisation. If used effectively a quorum means decisions are made by a group of directors who are representative of the organisation and its stakeholders as a whole.

In addition to promoting fairness and democracy, a quorum can also help to ensure that decisions are made with the full participation and engagement of the board. When a quorum is present, directors may be more likely to take the meeting seriously and to participate actively in the decision-making process. This can help to ensure that decisions are robust, well-informed and based on the collective knowledge and experience of the directors.

However it is important to be aware that a quorum can present challenges to board decision making. If the requirement for a board quorum is set too high, it may be difficult to achieve and can lead to delays on critical decisions. Conversely if the quorum requirement is set too low, it could be too easy to achieve and the outcome might not actually represent the views of the entire board.

In some cases a quorum requirement can sometimes be used as a way to block or delay board decisions. For example, if a small group within the board is opposed to a particular decision, they may be able to prevent a quorum from being established, effectively blocking any decision from being valid. While this can sometimes be a legitimate tactic in situations where the decision is particularly controversial or divisive, it can also be used to prevent the organisation from taking action on important issues or from taking rapid action on decisions that need to be expedited.

A quorum is an important aspect of any board decision making, and is very useful for ensuring that decisions are made in a fair, transparent and democratic manner. While there are potential drawbacks and challenges associated with the quorum mechanism, it still an important tool for promoting democracy and participation within a board. By setting a reasonable quorum requirement and working to ensure that all members are engaged and involved in the decision-making process, boards can make informed decisions that represent the best interests of the organisation and its stakeholders.

What is a quorum?

A quorum is the minimum number of members required to be present at a meeting in order to make the proceedings of the meeting valid. The number of people required to reach a quorum is usually defined by the governing documents or bylaws of an organisation or group.

Can a quorum be less than a majority?

A quorum can be less than a majority. A majority is a commonly used threshold for a quorum, there is no fixed requirement for what constitutes a quorum, and different organisations and their governing documents may establish different quorum thresholds.



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